One reason for the fanaticism, however, was to protect the emperor from war crimes prosecution, which the doves and hawks in the Japanese government were united on. The Japanese people saw the emperor as deific. By August of 1945, Japan was defeated. They were completely surrounded by enemy troops. Its navy was gone, its air force was gone; it was not even shooting at American airplanes that dropped bombs. The Japanese had been exploring surrendering for more than a year when the atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. After the USA's victory at Saipan in July of 1944, Japan's future was plain to all. Allied forces were rolling across Europe by that time, and all observers knew that it was only a matter of time before Japan and Germany were defeated. Japan began exploring surrender options in July 1944, and the USA knew it.
Einstein was fortunate in being able to migrate because of his celebrity. Other prominent Jews also found haven in the West. Most German Jews were not so fortunate. Similar to the argument that , nobody in the West could claim that they had nothing to do with the Jewish Holocaust of World War II. Most Jews would have left Germany in a heartbeat, but there was no friendly haven to flee to. Nobody in the West wanted Jews coming to their countries. Anti-Semitism was at its all-time high in Europe on the eve of World War II. The had collapsed due to its systemic greed and nobody wanted to take in Jews. In America, the Western Jewish haven, it was hard times. During the 1930s, the USA severely tightened its immigration laws, and Jews in particular were denied admittance.
This Amendment becomes one of the issues in the Tinker v.
In early 1943, American Jews began agitating for American action regarding the slaughter of Europe's Jews. While Jews began pressing for action, the State Department was instructing its Swiss office to stop forwarding reports of the Final Solution. They were actively covering-up the Holocaust, in an early instance of Holocaust denial. Jewish activism got the USA's government to convene a conference at Bermuda between British and American diplomats, who were the Jews' best friends in the West. The April 1943 Bermuda conference accomplished nothing, mainly because the attendees were told to accomplish nothing. The conference was calculated to give the of concern. By late 1943, the Third Reich's death machine had consumed millions of Jews. There were a handful of national politicians in America who sided with the Jewish plight, and the most prominent was Will Rogers, Jr., who was a congressional representative from Oklahoma and the part- son of Will Rogers. Rogers joined the Bergson Group, which was a small but highly active group in America, lobbying for federal government action. On October 6, 1943, 4,000 rabbis presented a petition to the White House to plead for action on behalf of Europe's Jews. Roosevelt begged off from attending the presentation due to a schedule conflict, and had his vice-president accept the petition. Roosevelt's calendar for that day showed that he had time to accept the petition, but chose not to.
His thesis rests on the memory of an Australian code-breaker working.
Bard spent more of his book on a group of American prisoners who had it probably worse than any other group of American POWs in Europe. In late 1944, Germany made its last desperate offensive, known as the Battle of the Bulge. It took the American troops by surprise and captured thousands of them. Germans slaughtered many American prisoners at what became known as the Malmédy Massacre, as the SS again demonstrated their heroic penchant for executing unarmed prisoners. Nazis tried separating Jewish-American soldiers from the four thousand soldiers that they captured. Again, their buddies tried hiding them, but with threats the Nazis were able to get 130 Jewish-American soldiers to identify themselves. They took those 130 soldiers, added 220 other soldiers from the ranks, and sent them off by train to the camp at Berga, which would have the highest mortality rate of any POW camp during the war. Berga was a slave labor camp where the soldiers were forced into mining activities. They were starved and worked to death for 50 days, and then the Allied armies drew close and the survivors were sent on a death march, just as Jews were being marched around the countryside in those last days. When their guards finally abandoned them, American soldiers, who could not believe at first that those human skeletons were American soldiers, discovered them. More than 70 of those 350 soldiers died in the span of two months. They had been reduced to the same "subhuman" condition that Patton said the Jews in the concentration camps had been reduced to. While in their ghastly prison conditions, the deteriorated a bit, and most soldiers stole from each other, as their survival partly depended on it. They always wore all of their clothes, because they would disappear if they took them off. One soldier awoke to find a buddy trying to take his boots off his feet while he slept.
Here are a few thesis statements that were drafted by our students
The USA's response to Berga was typical: denial. The army went so far as to send one survivor to a psychiatrist, stating that he had to be making up his story of Berga. When a soldier who survived Buchenwald applied for assistance at a VA hospital, the doctor who interviewed him wrote in his record, "Claims he was in Buchenwald." Another Buchenwald survivor was told by the Air Force Records Center that there was no record of him being a POW. When he wrote to federal agencies, their reply was invariably: "There were no Allied airmen at Buchenwald." The government made returning POWs sign secrecy agreements, which further paved the way to burying their story. Even at the end of the 20th century, the USA's government was still covering up what happened. Until the late 20th century, the survivors of the other four thousand Battle of the Bulge POWs, who remained after the 350 prisoners were separated and sent to Berga, knew nothing about where those 350 soldiers went, or their fate. The survivors often had their experiences received with disbelief when they brought them up, so they kept silent.