Revival of Hijab
As the century progressed, a revival of veiling and introduction of more modest dress reasserted itself. Opposition to Islamic required clothing had never been truly universal. Among the lower middle classes it had always tended to be defended in the face of change. Even in Turkey where the state had pushed the idea of reform, new ideas and styles of dress did not reach women in the hinterland.
In areas where Islam was resisted and believers felt threatened, like Indonesia and the Philippines, Muslim women began to dress more conservatively as a way to assert who they were. During militant struggles for independence, such as that against the French in Algeria or the British in Egypt, some women purposely kept the veil in defiance of western styles. It meant they also could take part in veiled and silent demonstrations, or could hide weapons under long robes.
There were other reasons for taking up and defending hijab. One was the growing reaffirmation of nation identity and rejection of values and styles seen as western. In response to Egypt's catastrophic loss to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, and the seeming failure of secularism, there also was a push to return to Islamic laws which had been abandoned. Modernization was seen as negative, a phenomena which encouraged people to reject not only Islamic but all indigenous traditions. Wearing hijab came to symbolize not the inferiority of the culture in comparison to western ways, but its uniqueness and superiority.
The real surge toward donning hijab came with Iran's revolution. Women were seen as key elements in achieving changes in public morality and private behavior. Unveiled women were mocked, called unchaste "painted dolls," and were punished if they appeared in public without proper covering. In countries beyond Iran in the 1970s, demonstrations and sit-ins appeared over opposition to the required western style dress code for university students and civil servants.
The point is backed up by the lack of attention given to the film in the ASCC’s post—Cancer Week assessments. In December 1921, an introduction to a cancer society report on National Cancer Week claimed that 500,000 people had been reached by lectures; several hundred thousand more by short addresses in churches, lodges, and theatres; upwards of 5,000,000 pieces of literature had been distributed; countless other thousands saw display posters or lantern slides on the screens of moving picture houses; and the newspaper and magazine publicity covered more or less the whole reading public of the country. The ASCC’s conservative estimate was that no less that 10 million people received the simple facts of cancer control during the week. The introduction made no reference to film.
Women's Role in Society in the 1800s - Essay
A final word might be said about the title — The Reward of Courage. The title is something of a puzzle, since the main beneficiaries of medical treatment — Anna, Dorothy and possibly Simpkins — display no courage until confronted by their husband, employer, or physician. It may be that that Anna’s surgery demonstrates last-minute courage, or that Dorothy demonstrates courage when she overcomes her false fear of the hereditary taint of cancer. But, the overall message is that the women in the film are saved by their menfolk: Anna because she endangers herself though her fearfulness and gullibility, and is rescued by her husband; Dorothy because she endangers her marriage through ignorance of the (non)hereditary nature of cancer, and eventually comes to accept Gene’s advice to seek the advice of someone who knows.
Essay On Women Education In India Free Essays
The movie was the first of the many thousands of public education films about cancer produced since 1921. But until recently it was impossible to view. No copies seemed to have survived in any major film collection. Even the American Cancer Society — as the ASCC was renamed in 1944 — had not kept a copy. The movie was considered lost until 2006 when a print was discovered in a partially catalogued collection at the Library of Congress and preserved by the National Library of Medicine. A digitized copy of this print accompanies this essay. This article follows the life of the movie from its beginnings to its rediscovery. It explains why the film was made, how it sought to promote the ASCC’s educational message, how it was received and distributed, why it was lost, and how it was rediscovered and preserved.
Historical Perspectives On Islamic Dress Essay (Women …
Womens independence was increasing limited during the long centuries of shogunate rule. Although in the early feudal period samurai women took a considerable role in household management and defense, by the Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868), womens rights within the samurai family were practically nonexistent. The oft quoted Three Obediences dictated their lives: When she is young, she obeys her father; when she is married, she obeys her husband; when she is widowed, she obeys her son. The 1762 treatise called Greater Learning for Women illustrates this NeoConfucian ideal of proper female behavior.