IV. The End of Slavery in Africa

About a quarter-million years after Oldowan culture began, a new species appeared called , named by Louis Leakey in 1964. Whether is really the first member of the human genus has been debated ever since. As with all of its primate ancestors, was adapted for tree climbing. Virtually , especially those in Africa. Silverback gorillas are about the lone exception, along with some isolated chimps. certainly slept in trees. The predators of African woodlands and grasslands have been formidable for millions of years, and predators of in those days included , , and . Night camera footage is readily available on the Internet today showing the nighttime behaviors engaged in by hyenas, lions, and others. The African woodlands and plains are extremely dangerous at night, just from roving predators, not to mention being stumbled into by elephants, rhinos, and water buffalos. Today’s African hunter-gatherers sleep around the campfire to keep predators and interlopers at bay; a sentinel keeps watch as everybody sleeps in shifts through the twelve-hour nights. They are safer from predation at night in camp than they are in daytime as they roam.

West and west central African states, already involved in slave trading, supplied the Europeans with African slaves for export across the Atlantic. Africans tended to live longer on the tropical plantations of the New World than did European laborers (who were susceptible to tropical diseases) and Native Americans (who were extremely susceptible to "Old World" diseases brought by the Europeans from Europe, Asia, and Africa). Also, enslaved men and women from Africa were inexpensive by European standards. Therefore, Africans became the major source, and eventually the only source, of New World plantation labor.

Darwin) that modern agriculture originated in Africa.

- African slavery is a controversial subject in society and in history.

The most-accepted hypothesis today is that evolved from and first appeared in East Africa between 2.0 and 1.8 mya. If those are not the exact species that the human line descended through during those times, our actual ancestors were close cousins. The early adults had brains of about 850 ccs, and some later specimens reached 1,100 ccs, or triple the mass of a chimpanzee’s brain. Today’s human brain only averages about 1,200 ccs (). , as with other members of the line, had a brain that was another third larger than , and probably was responsible for its relatively sophisticated material culture. But important as its growing brain was, other anatomical changes were more telling. was fully adapted for living on the ground and walking great distances. For the first quarter-million years of existence, it lived in the Oldowan culture, which used tools and weapons that were little more than rocks with sharpened edges, and probably some shaped sticks. They evolved in a highly dangerous environment and all of their ancestors slept in trees. How could they have slept on the ground? In a word: fire.

African American Slavery Essay - 1562 Words

Because of early Eocene Arctic forests, animals moved freely between Asia, Europe, Greenland, and North America, which were , and great mammalian radiations occurred in the early Eocene. Many familiar mammals first appeared by the mid-Eocene, such as , elephants, , and . The may have first appeared in Asia and migrated to India, Africa, and the Americas. Europe was not yet connected with Asia, however, as the separated them. Modern observers might be startled to know where many animals originated. and lived there for more than 40 million years, until humans arrived. Their only surviving descendants in the Western Hemisphere are . As with , or , or , or Eocene mammalian migrations via polar routes, the migrants often involuntarily “sailed” on vegetation mats that crossed relatively short gaps between the continents. Such a migration depended on fortuitous prevailing currents and other factors, but it happened often enough.

The Demise of Slavery; Rooted in Africa, ..

But the African Oligocene event of most interest to most humans was African primate evolution. By the Eocene’s end, primates were extinct in Europe and North America, and largely gone in Asia. Africa became the Oligocene's refuge for primates as they lived in the remaining rainforest. The first animals that evolved in the late Eocene, and what appears to be a appeared in Africa at the Oligocene’s beginning, about 35-33 mya. But ancestral to that creature was one that also led to those that migrated to South America, probably via vegetation rafts (with perhaps a land bridge helping), around the same time. Those South American monkeys are known as today and they evolved in isolation for more than 30 million years. For those that stayed behind in Africa, first appeared around the same time as those New World monkeys migrated; they diverged from . Scientists today think that somewhere between about 35 mya and 29 mya the splits between those three lineages happened. Old World and New World monkeys have not changed much in the intervening years, but apes sure have.

Custom Slavery in the United States essay writing

In Paleocene oceans, sharks filled the empty niches left by aquatic reptiles, but it took coral reefs ten million years to begin to recover, . As Africa and India moved northward, the shrank, and in the late Paleocene and early Eocene, one of the last Tethyan anoxic events laid down Middle East oil, and the last Paleocene climate event is called the (“PETM”). The PETM has been the focus of a great deal of recent research because of its parallels to today’s industrial era, when carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are massively vented to the atmosphere, causing a warming atmosphere and acidifying oceans. The seafloor communities suffered a mass extinction and the PETM’s causes are uncertain, but the when the global ocean warmed sufficiently is a prominent hypothesis. Scientists also look to the usual suspects of volcanism, changes in oceanic circulation, and a bolide impact.