An introductory study of institutional patterns and trends in a variety of countries with dissimilar governmental styles. The goal is to compare the stages of political development in the modern state system on a spectrum ranging from liberal democracies to authoritarian regimes. Discussion covers ethnic conflict and economic inequality in relation to the success and failure of governmental approaches in solving compelling issues.
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Free political socialization Essays and Papers - 123HelpMe
Early research identified the family as “[f]oremost among the agencies of socialization into politics” (Hyman 1959, 69) due to its unique position in fulfilling children’s basic needs and the strong psychological and physical bonds that exist within the familial hierarchy. The family is perhaps most successful in passing on basic political identities, especially affiliation with the Republican or Democratic parties and ideological leanings. However, this trend is less robust today than it was a quarter-century ago, as more people are politically ambiguous, identifying themselves as partisan independents and politically moderate. There are significant limitations on the family as a socializing agent, especially as politics takes a backseat to issues related to daily life.
An essay or paper on Agents of Political Socialization
Identifying the point in the life course that is most consequential for political socialization has been a source of ongoing debate. The political socialization of children and adolescents has been the subject of the majority of research. The early theoretical justification for the focus on youth was based on persistence theories, in particular the primacy and structuring principles, which assume that childhood learning is robust and carries over to significantly shape adult political orientations. Scholars maintained that early learning provides a foundation for future political thinking and action. Studies indicate that the development of a political identity begins in the preschool years as children realize that they belong to a particular town and eventually that they are part of a larger nation. Young children tend to personalize their relationship with government and to idealize political figures, such as police officers and the president, who is seen as a “benevolent leader.” The level of idealization differs from one era to the next; children today have a somewhat less positive view of political actors than in the past due in part to parents and the mass media conveying more negative messages about politicians. As children and adolescents gain greater exposure to and experience with public officials, they grow more skeptical about them. Young people gradually develop attitudes toward the political system as a whole. Patriotic values are reinforced through rituals, such as singing the “Star Spangled Banner” as tribute to the nation’s military at sporting events. As children mature, they become increasingly sophisticated about their place in the political world and their potential for involvement. They learn to relate abstract concepts, such as the requirements of democracy and majority rule, to the right to vote when they come of age.
Political Socialization Essays - StudentShare
Fred Greenstein describes the socialization process as, “Political learning, formal and informal, deliberate and unplanned, at every stage of the life cycle, including not only explicit political learning, but also nominally nonpolitical learning of politically relevant social attitudes” (1965, 10). While some aspects of political socialization are structured, such as classroom civics classes, socialization is largely a haphazard process. There is no standard set of goals and practices for socializing agents, such as parents, teachers, friends, and mass media, to follow, except perhaps for a vague textbook notion of the ideal citizen who keeps informed about politics and votes regularly. Although people can play an active role in their own political development, political socialization scholarship largely assumes a one-way process from agent to subject. Further, the context within which individual experiences take place is consequential for political socialization and differs based on family and social situation, school environment, religious orientations, military service, and other situational factors. Thus, the process of political socialization can be represented by the following model: who (subjects) learns what (political orientations) from whom (agents) under what circumstances with what effects (12).