Philosophers have focused their attention on three food virtues: hospitality, temperance, and table manners. The virtue of hospitality, or hospitableness, is the virtue of sharing one’s accommodations, food, and drink with friends, strangers, and guests. In so doing, we recognize in another our common vulnerabilities and needs. A good host provides warmth and community and, above all, something to eat and drink. By contrast, the virtue of temperance is less concerned with how one feeds others but rather how one moderates one’s own pleasures of eating and drinking. It is best understood in terms of its vice: gluttony. A glutton eats and drinks excessively: too much, too soon, too quickly, and too voraciously. A glutton is weak willed, self-indulgent, and lacking restraint. An overly temperate person finds no enjoyment in food or drink. That person is abstemious and ascetic.
Utilitarian (or consequentialist) approaches argue that animals (like humans) have no fundamental rights. Rather, they have the capacity to experience pleasure and to suffer and are thus no less morally significant than we are. Utilitarian approaches require that we give equal consideration to the interests of humans and animals alike. Equality of consideration is prescriptive, not descriptive. It is a moral idea, not an assertion of fact. The strength of the animal welfarist appeal is, however, the obvious fact of animal suffering and animal cruelty. Most arguments for ethical vegetarianism and veganism are based on animal welfare and the need to give animals moral consideration. Another set of arguments focus on different consequences, such as the vast amounts of fuel and water used in ranching, the greenhouse gases produced, wasted food on feeding animals rather than people, and increased risk of heart disease from eating meat. These are among the many good reasons for not eating meat.
Free Narrative essay example on Food culture and traditions
The latter creates legal consequences for actions but does nothing to change beliefs and convictions.More anti-discrimination laws will increase the number of workplace lawsuits and only make our already litigious society even more so.If laws are passed prohibiting weight discrimination it would create a precedent for laws to protect any group that experiences discrimination -- including short people, unattractive people, bald men, and so on.For more pro-and-con (pdf)()Appropriate EatingAll cultures determine appropriate eating and drinking conduct. There are customs and practices that regulate what we should eat, how much, when, where, in what manner, and with whom. Manners regulate dining surfaces, usage of utensils, comportment of the body, the topic of conversation, and a myriad of other features of eating and drinking alone and together. Table manners, eating customs, and etiquette are part of the moral landscape we all inhabit, even if these landscapes vary among societies.The ancient virtue of temperance (or moderation) central to eating and drinking conduct continues to govern what we consider proper conduct. Although the norms vary by place and time, the virtue of temperance is omnipresent. We should strive to avoid the extremes of poor eating and drinking manners: neither gluttony nor abstention.It is generally considered wrong to overeat, indulge, binge, eat too quickly, eat other people’s food without permission, and to eat things at the margins of appropriateness for a society.It is generally considered wrong to under-eat, to deny oneself food for no reason, to derive no pleasure at all from eating, and other overly ascetic practices.Proper manners and etiquette are primarily concerned with appropriate conduct with and for others. They are primarily concerned with the welfare of others, civility, and humanity, and therefore represent genuine normative concerns.RepliesAlthough manners and etiquette are normative they are trivial; they are non-universalizable; they are regional; they vary by class even within a region. Manners and etiquette are always controversial and contestable, hence unreliable.Manners and etiquette may be overridden by more generalizable normative claims of moral conduct or even the law.Manners and etiquette are tools of social control more than vehicles of social cohesion.