Mill's explicit theory of rights is introduced in Chapter V ofUtilitarianism in the context of his sanction theory of duty,which is an indirect form of utilitarianism that identifies wrongactions as actions that it is useful to sanction (U V 14).Mill then introduces justice as a proper part of duty. Justice involvesduties that are perfect duties—that is, duties that arecorrelated with rights (V 15).
We have focused so far on understanding Mill's version ofutilitarianism, especially his conceptions of happiness and duty. Nowwe should consider his justification of utilitarianism, which he offersin his discussion of the “proof” of the principle ofutility in Chapter IV. Mill claims that the utilitarian must claim thathappiness is the one and only thing desirable in itself (IV 2). Heclaims that the only proof of desirability is desire and proceeds toargue that happiness is the one and only thing desired. He argues thata person does desire his own happiness for its own sake and that,therefore, happiness as such is desired by and desirable for its ownsake for humanity as a whole (“The aggregate of allpersons”) (IV 3). He then turns to defend the claim thathappiness is the only thing desirable in itself, by arguing thatapparent counterexamples (e.g., desires for virtue for its own sake)are not inconsistent with his claim (IV 5–8).
Ethics Utilitarianism Essay Example for Free
When these two conditions are met, Mill believes, agents should forthe most part follow these principles automatically and withoutrecourse to the utilitarian first principle. However, they shouldperiodically step back and review, as best they can, whether theprinciple continues to satisfy conditions (1) and (2). Also, theyshould set aside these secondary principles and make direct appeal tothe principle of utility in unusual cases in which it is especiallyclear that the effects of adhering to the principle would besubstantially suboptimal and in cases in which secondary principles,each of which has a utilitarian justification, conflict (II 19,24–25).
Utilitarianism Quizzes | GradeSaver
We might expect a utilitarian to apply the utilitarian principle inher deliberations. Consider act utilitarianism. We might expect such autilitarian to be motivated by pure disinterested benevolence and todeliberate by calculating expected utility. But it is a practicalquestion how to reason or be motivated, and act utilitarianism impliesthat this practical question, like all practical questions, iscorrectly answered by what would maximize utility. Utilitariancalculation is time-consuming and often unreliable or subject to biasand distortion. For such reasons, we may better approximate theutilitarian standard if we don't always try to approximate it. Millsays that to suppose that one must always consciously employ theutilitarian principle in making decisions
Utilitarianism (book) - Wikipedia
Since the early 20th Century utilitarianism has undergone a varietyof refinements. After the middle of the 20th Century it hasbecome more common to identify as a ‘Consequentialist’since very few philosophers agree entirely with the view proposed bythe Classical Utilitarians, particularly with respect to the hedonisticvalue theory. But the influence of the Classical Utilitarians hasbeen profound — not only within moral philosophy, but withinpolitical philosophy and social policy. The question Benthamasked, “What use is it?,” is a cornerstone of policyformation. It is a completely secular, forward-lookingquestion. The articulation and systematic development of thisapproach to policy formation is owed to the Classical Utilitarians.
SparkNotes: Utilitarianism: Review Quiz
This principle in Moore — particularly as applied to thesignificance of actual existence and value, or knowledge and value,provided utilitarians with tools to meet some significantchallenges. For example, deluded happiness would be severelylacking on Moore's view, especially in comparison to happinessbased on knowledge.