New York City has three charter school authorizers. Of the schools covered in this report, the State University of New York authorized 20 , the chancellor of the New York City schools authorized 19, and the New York State Board of Regents authorized 3. Three types of organizations operate charter schools in New York City: nonprofit community-grown organizations (CGOs), nonprofit charter management organizations (CMOs), and for-profit education management organizations (EMOs). CMOs and EMOs are formal organizations that exist to manage charter schools, and they function somewhat like firms that have a strong brand and that establish fairly independent branches or franchises (see “,” ). CMOs and EMOs typically make overarching curricular and policy decisions, conduct back-office activities, and provide something of a career ladder for teachers and administrators within their network of schools. The CMO with the most schools in New York City in 2005–06 was the KIPP Foundation, and the EMO with the most schools was Victory Schools. CGO schools may be founded by a group of parents, a group of teachers, a community organization that provides local social services, one or more philanthropists, or the teachers union. More often than not, the founding group combines people from a few of the groups listed above.
Depending on a student's individual needs and the type of special education arrangement, offering appropriate special education services may result in the charter school working with a school district program, a non-public school or agency, or another charter school to provide a level or type of service that is not available at the individual charter school site. Ultimately, the student's parents and representatives (the IEP team) make the final determination of the best educational option and services for the
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