The human ability to think abstractly was exploited by social managers from civilization’s earliest days. Fixating people on irrational symbols, and then manipulating those symbols for elite benefit, is arguably a universal trait of civilized peoples. Even today, a great deal of politics is the ; as with the earliest religion, the neocortex is bypassed in favor of , and people are easy prey to the cynical manipulation of emotionally charged symbols. The effects of can last for the victim’s lifetime. When people mistake symbols for reality, they are easily manipulated. Large-scale ideological indoctrination probably began in Sumer, as the priesthood concocted and promoted various beliefs. Symbology replaced reality, including the acceptance of the secular elite as deific, getting slaves to accept their status, and getting commoners to give food to the priesthood to fulfill some divinely ordained obligation. Religion passed from experience to belief with the rise of civilization. I am not suggesting that pre-civilized religions were necessarily enlightened. They had shamanic intermediaries too, but with the rise of civilization, the priest class had to work hard to justify the obviously unfair social organization that accompanied stratified populations. Direct religious experience was disparaged and suppressed while the priesthood’s religious indoctrination was promoted.
Among herbivores, their mode of digestion was important. attained the , and elephants, rhinos, and horses have that digestive process. Cattle, camels, deer, giraffes, and many other herbivorous mammals are foregut fermenters and many are , which have four-chambered stomachs, while the others . While foregut fermenters are more energy efficient, hindgut fermenters can ingest more food. Hindgut fermenters gain an advantage when forage is of low quality. What they . There are drawbacks to that advantage, however, such as when there is not much forage or its quality is poor, such as dead vegetation. A cow, for instance, digests as much as 75% of the protein that it eats, while a horse digests around 25%. Live grass contains about four times the protein as dead grass. Cattle can subsist on the dead grass of droughts or hard winters and horses cannot, which was a tradeoff in pastoral societies.
Free energy conservation Essays and Papers - 123HelpMe
Hunter-gatherer lands are far more sparsely populated than agricultural or industrial lands because of how much energy people can extract from their environments. Japanese rice farmers can extract 10 thousand times as much food energy from a hectare of land as Cro-Magnon hunter-gatherers could. At Japanese rice farmer levels of productivity, the yard of the home I was raised in could have met my family’s food requirements.
The law of conservation of energy: A simple introduction
As this narrative shows, the North American extinctions came relatively late in the process, but they have been by far the most controversial. The reasons for that appear to be several. One is that North America is the home of history’s richest and most powerful nation, and when Martin first published his proposal, the USA was in the midst of a cultural awakening (as well as ), and the awesome crimes that Europeans committed against indigenous Americans were brought to widespread public awareness for the first time. American Indian activist dismissed the idea of overkill, and until his death he attributed the extinctions to catastrophic celestial events. He was a follower of work. The idea that American Indians hunted North American mammoths to extinction also conflicted with the then prominent “peaceful savage” and “ecological Indian” themes, so the denial partly reflected political bias.
Conservation of energy essay - Kubi Kalloo
Scientists are unanimous that the Western Hemisphere’s indigenous peoples primarily came from East Asia, but there has been a cottage industry for centuries proposing other ideas. When Thomas Jefferson sent the expedition to North America’s west coast in 1804 to , they were alerted to find the lost tribes of Israel. But genetic, anatomical, archeological, and other evidence has long since settled the issue of where American Indians came from, and by far the leading hypothesis is that humans migrated to North and South America beginning about 15 kya, and there may have been a migration along the Pacific coastline, which continued the . As the , a corridor between them formed and humans walked to North America about 11 kya. Those arrivals founded the . The sudden disappearance of virtually all the megafauna of North and South America followed those humans, particularly those that came by land and spread. That situation is where the original “” label was used.